4psi
4psi

Disclaimer: There is a fair use of abrasive language and coarse rhetoric throughout this particular post. Allow me to say that this post is not America-bashing in its nature, rather my intention is to make those whom are interested in knowing about the effects of a nuclear detonation aware of the consequences of such an event and are willing to look at it through the scope of objectiveness and not allow themselves to be subjugated by the predicates of subjectivity (i.e., propaganda from U.S. news media). Personally, I find it highly unlikely that the engagement of nuclear exchange can occur, however, the threat of a nuclear attack is about as real as you make it to be…and I doubt any of you reading this blog post will even know who launched the warheads.

That which is objective is universal, meaning that whatever it is can be measured; qualified; quantified; and exists independent of you. That which is subjective is entirely relative; it cannot be measured; cannot be qualified; cannot be quantified; and is completely dependent on you.

Something that puts ink on paper exists whether you exist or not; even if you did not exist it would still exist and since that is true, it is therefore objective. The name that is given to the pen is subjective. Some may call it a “ball point pen”; some may choose to call it simply a “pen”; and some may call it an “ink pen”. As clear as day, it’s obvious that it is not universal because if it were then we would all associate it by the same name.

Truth is objective and therefore universal. Truth existed long before you and I ever existed and will continue to exist long after we all die and truth existed long before you and I were ever born. Despite that this is a fact [not necessarily a known fact], it seems that the overwhelming majority of people are adamantly in opposition to this fact [apparently, the case for this is that people just do not want to exercise the benefit of thinking critically]. Rather, they want to defy all the boundaries of pure logic.

As an example, just take a look at all of the propaganda being pumped out about North Korea’s “threats” to the United States. Whenever someone (moreover, someone here in the United States) hears “nuclear”, they go straight into panic-mode. Now, I do understand that some of you out there can’t help but willingly swallow up a bunch of propaganda pie but people who are like me–and know better–refrain from gratifying the sweet tooth 24/7/365. A lot of people believe that with the [current] situation with North Korea that we are now at the closest we’ve ever been to a “nuclear apocalypse”. No, the closest times we’ve ever been to World War III were Kissinger’s duplicitous actions back during the 1971 Pakistani-Indian War and when the KAL 007 was shot down. You can’t call yourself an “adult” yet keep thinking like a little, dumb child. It’s time to learn how to distinguish between strategic nuclear warheads, theatre nuclear warheads, and battlefield tactical nuclear weapons. When you finally learn and understand the difference, the intent and purpose of strategic nuclear weapons should be of ease to you. Matter of fact, I’ll make it easier for you.

ICBMs (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles) and SLBMs (Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missiles) are not just any kind of nuclear weapon–they are strategic nuclear weapons. Strategic nuclear weapons serve one purpose and one purpose only and that purpose is to destroy a country’s ability and capacity of becoming a hostile state that would wage war with its enemy or enemies. Understand that there was no other technology, in comparison, that could go along with strategic nuclear weapons when they were first developed. Nuclear weapons technology was still in its infancy as was missile technology and guidance systems technology. Back then, the failure rate was considerably high, meaning that it would require a greater number of strategic nuclear weapons being developed in order to overcome the failure rate (this would account for “stockpile”). If you’re planning on attacking a city in another country, exactly how many nuclear weapons should be devoted to destroying that city? I wouldn’t know, no one knows how many nuclear weapons should be tasked to a particular city but in order to find out how, you’ll have to put someone on the ground to find out. This person will be tasked with providing intelligence information about the targeted city and provide needful information such as the number of radio and television stations there are; the number and type of manufacturing facilities there are; that city’s ability to convert manufacturing facilities to the production of war materiel (if it makes rubber gaskets, can it switch to making rubber gaskets for armored vehicles and aircraft?). This person would also have been tasked with gathering intelligence on the transportation infrastructure such as distinguishing between whether this road is a major highway or a rail hub. Please know that this was the task of Lee Harvey Oswald when he was sent to gather intelligence information about the city of Minsk when he worked for the NIS (assigned by the CIA).

All of that is known as target assessment, target acquisition data, etc. This is used in efforts of determining exactly how many strategic nuclear weapons are necessary to ensure that the whole communication, transportation and manufacturing infrastructure of your targeted city is completely destroyed.

Enter the 1960s and 1970s: The United States now has satellites with photographic capability and then infrared and ultraviolet capability in addition to better missile technology, even better guidance system technology and better nuclear weapons technology plus the wealth of information that had been gained from testing and don’t forget about the advances that were being made in computer technology–at the time. After all of the advancements that were being made, you no longer needed four 1 megaton nuclear warheads to destroy a city, you only needed 1 megaton nuclear warhead, and after continuous testing, you only needed one 750 kt nuclear warhead, and after continuous testing, you only needed a 450 kt nuclear warhead in order to rest assure that the targeted city’s infrastructure would be destroyed.

See, people need to realize that we Americans (I live here in the U.S.) are totally and without a shadow of a doubt, completely reliant on technology. We Americans love and idolize convenience, which is why some have adopted consumer-based technology and are employing them in the world of business (where consumer-based technology really doesn’t belong, but hey, you can’t tell us Americans anything because we do things without thinking about it beforehand). You have businesses that have taken the iPad® and using it to take inventory of items such as food that they have in stock. No longer can they do simple things with a pad and pen–oh no–they’ll go haywire if an ATM machine breaks down and no longer functions the whole United States society will collapse in seconds. Believe me. In other countries, such as Russia, having a society that is not heavily reliant on technology is a good thing because when an ATM machine breaks down, no one really gives a god-damn. To them, computers are nothing more than a minor inconvenience to them, at most. But in America, heart palpitations go on the rise if the battery in one’s iPhone® goes “dead” and they’ll go and make a YouTube video and pout about it so the world can see how jeopardize their lives are since they won’t be able to play Angry Birds. North Korea knows (as well as every other country and state in the world knows) that most Americans (and by “Americans” I’m referring to those of us dwelling in the United States) still need help with tying their shoelaces. They can make all the “threats” at the U.S. that they want to, they know that most Americans wouldn’t be able to tell exactly what a nuclear weapon is if they were to stumble upon one.

So what if North Korea “threatened” to target Austin, Texas or any other city in the U.S.. Does North Korea possess any 450 kt nuclear weapons? No, and even if they did, do they have any aircraft that’s necessary to deliver such a beast? No. How about nuclear submarines? No. They can “point all their rockets” they want at us that they want but then again, all they have to do is just S A Y that they’re going to “point all their rockets” at us. That’s just enough for them to get the vast majority of American mawfuckas scared silly.

How many Americans can apply simple eighth grade spherical geometry to the detonation of a 450 kt nuclear warhead in its direct relation to square miles and surface area (along with the height (or, altitude) of the nuclear warhead)?

Let’s find out:

S = \frac {(9.848 * 10^7) * h)} {(3.960 * 10^3) + h)}

Where:

S = Surface area (in square miles) of Earth seen at a particular height

h = The height in miles of the object above the Earth’s surface

If the detonation were to occur 35 miles above the Earth’s surface:

S = \frac {(9.848 * 10^7) * 35)} {(3.960 * 10^3) + 35)}

S = \frac {(3,446,800,000)} {(3,995)}

That means that the surface area covered is 862,778 square miles. The continental United States is 2,959,064 square miles, so between 3-4 450 kt nuclear warheads detonated 35-45 miles above the Earth’s surface over the continental United States would pretty much set us back into the Stone Age. Please understand, at the point that a nuclear warhead is detonated (at whatever altitude), x-rays, gammas, neutrons, protons, fission fragments and nuclei saturate the air, ionizes it, strikes the ground and induces an electromagnetic field that will burn everything out. So tell me, how would you go about calculating the “fallout” for a 750 kt warhead? A warhead in the 750 kt range will have a plutonium fission trigger with a yield of 30 kt. In other words, you would get 30 kt from fission with the remaining 720 kt coming from the fusion of hydrogen into helium. That’s right, helium. For those of you have vivid images stuck in your minds from watching old footage of 20th century atomic testings, scenes from propagandizing movies the likes of Threads, T3, The Day After and so forth, allowing me to bring you into reality as the “effects” of a nuclear warhead being detonated at specified altitudes but before I do that, let me backtrack a little and expand (nh) on helium for a bit. Why is helium important (in regards to the detonation of a nuclear warhead)? You all need to be aware that fuel is needed, but what kind of fuel? Deuterium, tritium and lithium hydride (which is a crystalline powder, btw). Some nuclear engineers get it twisted with heat and “neutron flux”. Understand that plutonium is what provides the heat. If the design of a nuclear warhead is efficient, the plutonium will enter in what’s known as the plasma state and will expand to about 2-3 meters in diameter with a temperature ~7 million ° Fahrenheit–and I’m talking about a trigger that contains no more than 3.5 kg of plutonium. At a temperature ~7 million ° Fahrenheit, what happens to just about everything within respective distance to that temperature? Hell, what happens to everything within distance to a temperature of 10,000° Fahrenheit?

It’s vaporized–disappears into thin air, playa.

Neutron flux, as excessive as it might seem to some nuclear physicists, it really does enhance efficiency. Just know that 100% efficiency can never be achieved, however it is the pressure (this is where Boyle’s Law kicks in) from the expanding plasma ball that fuses hydrogen into helium. Neutron bombardment, at a lesser extent, does create the pressure which is why beryllium is the preferred fuel to produce the neutron flux (in my blog post, “Where Do You See Yourself In Science?”, I had made a reference to beryllium when North Korea tested its spherical implosion design back in February 2013). Deuterium, tritium and lithium hydride are different ways to efficiently store high volumes of hydrogen which will later on be fused by the intense heat [from plutonium] into helium. What neutron bombardment does is liberate the hydrogen which would then be fused into helium. Do know that this is not all that efficient. It’s important to know that hydrogen is the key since anything that contains hydrogen can be used as a fuel–just not as efficient as deuterium, tritium or lithium hydride (or ammonium hydride or even aluminum hydride, at that).

Quantity of the base fuels will determine how much helium is produced. Variable yield weapons contain a plutonium trigger and a fuel, either deuterium or a combination such as deuterium-tritium compound, in a small cylinder that’s under pressure. Now, what about the yield? You don’t actually dial the yield (years ago, the media would give it a silly name, “Dial-A-Yield” or something like that). A Lance variable yield was ~0.3 kt to 100kt. This was achieved by converting 10 kt warheads that were deployed. So, you have 6.8 kg of plutonium plus a deuterium cylinder. You now tell the bomb what you want it to do (yeah, you talk to the bomb)–you say, “Give me a yield of 40 kilotons!” While the warhead’s in flight, the warhead will bleed off a specified quantity of the deuterium gas and then on target, the remaining deuterium gas is fused so you get 10 kt from fission and 30 kt from fusion [of hydrogen into helium]. That’s a total of 40 kt. How about a yield of only 1 kt? You tell the bomb this and in flight, it would bleed off all of the deuterium and then on target, only a select number of plastic explosive lenses would fire to collapse the plutonium to a density [yes, a heat density] that would be sufficient enough to achieve that 1 kiloton blast. I don’t see North Korea developing their nuclear weapons like this–yet.

What do you all know about electromagnetism? All right, you have numerous particles like x-rays, gammas, neutrons, protons, fission fragments and they’re all sailing through the air, only not uniformly so. As a result, the atmosphere–air minus oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, the usual, etc.–isn’t symmetrically ionized. This permits the creation of a vortex and as these particles make contact with the earth (the dirt) it creates a gigantic coil. For those of you who did good in school, you should know as to what I’m referring to since it should have been part of your school’s curriculum to require that you take physics, and in that physics class you should have been taught to take a piece of iron, have it wrapped in copper and hooked to a battery and have a current run through it. That’s how you make a magnet. So, what’s the next step? Playa, now you should have unwrapped the wire and then wrapped it again with more wrap and then hook it back up to the battery. This would make your magnet even more powerful. Now you have an electromagnetic coil. Commonly, an electromagnetic coil is used everyday for switches and valves (when power is supplied to the electromagnet for the “off”/”gate-closed” and vice verse). This is what happens when a high yield (>400 kilotons) nuclear warhead is detonated in the upper atmosphere. Bear in mind, we’re talking about spherical geometry here. You need to have firm grasp on understanding that from a point in space above a sphere, particles radiate out and cover a certain amount of square miles on the sphere (Earth–planet Earth). If you were to increase the distance of the point in space from the sphere, you increase the number of square miles covered (by the detonation of the nuclear warhead at greater altitudes).

The whole point of detonating a nuclear warhead is to destroy as much as possible. If any of you knew this, there’s no way North Korea–oh, I’m sorry–there’s no way news media here in the United States would be able to get away with propagandizing that North Korea was in the position to “point all their rockets” at us. Besides, what is the primary danger from the detonation of a nuclear warhead?

Answer: It’s overpressure. Thermal heat (or prompt radiation, for those of you who still have images from Hollywood flicks floating around in that little peanut-sized, Pixar excursion of a “brain” of yours) is secondary.

Since a few cartilage-cranium, anal-retentive, solipsistic, predicate losers have cried to me about the lack of visual aids in my blog posts, I hope this helps out. What you’re looking at (while squealing like a little girl being molested by her least favorite uncle) is the result of what an overpressure of 4 psi does to your organs–it liquifies ‘em, playa. An overpressure of 4 psi not only kills people but it also damages buildings. Scroll back up to the formula I displayed earlier. You all need to understand how that formula works because it’s the exact same formula that is used to determine the extension of the overpressure that goes out to a certain distance. Once again, the greater the altitude, the more effective the detonation will have. Assume I would want a minimum of 10 psi to extend out as far as possible so I would require a substantial height for the detonation. This means 4 psi will extend out even further and cover even greater surface area. Overpressure liquifies a person’s organs THEN hurls that person through the air (they’re already dead from their organs being liquified so they won’t get the chance to experience the thrill of human mid-air flight)–until they come in contact with a stationary object or another dead person that’s been hurled through the air by the overpressure.

So, what about “fallout”? Fallout only occurs below the Troposphere and since the winds in the Stratosphere can move up to speeds of 220 mph any plutonium particles that did not undergo fission along with most of the fission products will be sailing at a good clip around the globe for 8 years or so while being widely dissipated and dispersed, so why waste time taking fallout into consideration? Besides, the particles (~48 microns) will be falling at a rate of 2,000 feet per hour. Then again, that’s if–a big IF–the winds in the Stratosphere don’t catch ‘em and twirl ‘em around the world first.

The threat of a nuclear attack is real–just not from North Korea. Might I remind you all that there are only six countries that have the capability of placing 3-4 >450 kt nuclear warheads in the upper atmosphere and detonating them with the intentions of disabling another country’s ability to….literally….defend themselves…or wage war…and those countries are:

  1. Britain
  2. France
  3. China
  4. Israel
  5. Russia
  6. The Unites States

I don’t know what life’s like in North Korea. I don’t waste my time reading books about someone’s life there, it’s none of my concern. All I know is that here, in the United States, people are under the delusion that the world needs us–that the world needs American consumerism in order to stabilize the global economy. No, motherfuckers. The world does not need our American asses at all. And by the way, has it ever occurred to anyone that allies of the United States seems to always have a nuclear energy program but those countries that seemingly pose a “threat” to the United States always have a nuclear weapons program. I have already proven that Iran does not have a nuclear weapons program but they do have nuclear energy program, mainly for the reason of addressing their perennial 20% unemployment rate. Then again, I have to remind myself that the news media has more powers of manipulation than I or anyone else has in their possession. If an article came out and it stated that Iran has a nuclear weapon, 9 out of every 10 persons would believe it…because that’s how god damn fucking stupid people are.

In conclusion, most would deem me as being passionate about “things nuclear”. I’m absolutely not passionate–about anything. I have zero passion in my heart. The word passion means “suffering”. I do not suffer from a misunderstanding of “things nuclear”–no, people around me suffer from a misunderstanding of “things nuclear”. If they didn’t, North Korea wouldn’t be in the sorry-ass state of affairs that it’s currently in and this lengthy blog post wouldn’t exist…but it does, therefore, it’s here to serve its purpose and that purpose is to educate those that are sitting ducks in the pond of passion–a state of suffering from a misunderstanding of what it means to comprehend what is being said to them and rightly discern from right and wrong. It is wrong to support the United States in what it’s doing to North Korea; however, it is right to take the steps to understanding exactly how the devices that possibly could be utilized in addressing the situation that is currently taking place. If North Korea truly is a bitch-factory (i.e., dictatorship cluttered with concentration camps, yada yada yada, etc.,), it’s undoing will result in a civil war within North Korea or North Korea will be weakened from a civil war allowing South Korea or another foreign entity to come in and take over. As far as the United States goes, do know that empires must expand in order to survive or they’ll enter a period of stagnation and ultimately collapse–in any number of ways.

Desmond

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      You have to harbor a “desire to learn” in order to garner absolute complete interest in the subject matter you wish to divulge yourself into, playa. That’s how the learning process begins and it does not matter how “complex” or simple the subject is either. Anything you deem to be unknown does not mean that the subject at hand is unknowable. The key to having an understanding of any subject matter is potential.

      We all have the potential, however, some of us have [and are still] going through the gauntlet in which we know as science, and are tasked with the responsibility of sharing our knowledge with the masses. I am one of those that have been tasked with that responsibility. Take care and never stop learning.

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